Boris Lvin (bbb) wrote,
Boris Lvin
bbb

Европейская стена

Наверно, есть только одно место, где Западная Европа непосредственно граничит с "третьим миром". Это граница между испанскими эксклавами Сеутой и Мелильей, с одной стороны, и Марокко, с другой. Географически Сеута и Мелилья - это, конечно, Африка, но политически и экономически чистой воды Западная Европа.

Кстати, исключительно характерно для понимания того, как устроен политический класс и что такое территориализм - одной рукой Испания владеет эксклавами на территории не просто другой страны, а вообще на другом континенте, а второй рукой страшно возмущается наличием такого же заморского эксклава на своей территории (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disputed_status_of_Gibraltar#Spanish_position).

Так вот, про эту самую сухопутную границу между Европой и Африкой в википедиях пишут так:

The fence consists of parallel 6 metre (20-foot)[3] fences topped with barbed wire, with regular watchposts and a road running between them to accommodate police patrols or ambulance service in case of need. Underground cables connect spotlights, noise and movement sensors, and video cameras to a central control booth

<...>

In 1993 an 8.4 km (5.2 mi) fence was built around the exclave. As the first fence was too easy to cross the construction of a new system started in 1995. In 2005 an increase of height was made, from 3 to 6 m (9 ft 10 in to 19 ft 8 in).


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ceuta_border_fence

Massive intrusions of African people via Melilla had become a Spanish issue and, to some extent, a European Union issue. This prompted the Spanish government of José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero in 2005 to build up a third fence next to the two deteriorated existing ones, in order to completely seal the border outside of the regular checkpoints.

This third razor wire barrier cost Spain €33 million to construct. It consists of 11 km (6.8 mi) of parallel 3 m (9 ft 10 in) high fences topped with barbed wire, with regular watchposts and a road running between them to accommodate either police patrols or ambulance service in case of need. Underground cables connect spotlights, noise and movement sensors, and video cameras to a central control booth. In 2005 its height was doubled to 6 m (19 ft 8 in) since immigrants were climbing the previous fences equipped with home-made steps. Also, in order to facilitate the intruders' detention, devices to slow them harmlessly were added.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Melilla_border_fence


Там еще и картинки есть, и рассказы о том, как эти стены штурмуют. Например, в статье про сеутскую стену хронология штурмов описывается так:

2016 breach

The fence was breached by an organised group of 400 illegal entrants in December 2016.

2017 breach

On 17 February 2017 an estimated 600 would-be undocumented migrants, some of whom were armed with clubs and shears, broke through the security gates; 300 of them are reported to have entered Ceuta where police are attempting to locate them.

2018 breaches

In June 2018, 400 migrants, the majority of whom were Moroccans, stormed the fence in Ceuta.

In July 2018, 602 Africans forced their way across the border using shears, sticks and edged weapons. The Africans sprayed corrosive substances, excrement and urine on police officers. Spanish police officers were injured, four of them with major burns. After this breach, the border was reinforced with more personnel, extra police vehicles and a helicopter equipped with night vision equipment.

In August 2018, of the hundreds that attempted it, more than 100 Africans forced their way into Ceuta, bringing the up to then 2018 total to 1400. The Africans threw excrement and corrosive substances at the Spanish police, some of whom suffered burns. In total seven officers were wounded. The following day 116 Africans were deported back across the border per a 1992 bilateral agreement between Spain and Morocco.


Впрочем, Марокко тоже не отстает. И даже в чем-то сильно опережает, соорудив, наверно, самый большой в мире пограничный барьер - т.н. "Марокканскую стену". Соответственно, ее в википедиях описывают так:

<...> an approximately 2,700 km (1,700 mi) long structure, mostly a sand wall
<...>
The fortifications lie in uninhabited or very sparsely inhabited territory. They consist of sand and stone walls or berms about 3 m (10 ft) in height, with bunkers, fences and landmines throughout. The barrier minebelt that runs along the structure is thought to be the longest continuous minefield in the world.


https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moroccan_Western_Sahara_Wall
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