March 4th, 2021

Об федерализм

29 января CDC выпустило (выпустил? выпустила?) бумагу, предписывающую обязательное ношение масок в общественном транспорте:

https://www.cdc.gov/quarantine/masks/mask-travel-guidance.html
https://www.cdc.gov/quarantine/pdf/Mask-Order-CDC_GMTF_01-29-21-p.pdf

Насколько это обоснованно с эпидемиологической точки зрения - в данном случае не так важно. Важнее другое. В самых первых строках бумаги дается правовое обоснование, то есть ссылка на законы, наделяющие, как предполагается, CDC правом выпускать такого рода документы. Конкретно, эта ссылка выглядит так:

pursuant to 42 U.S.C. 264(a) and 42 CFR 70.2, 71.31(b), and 71.32(b)

42 U.S.C. 264(a)

The Surgeon General, with the approval of the Secretary, is authorized to make and enforce such regulations as in his judgment are necessary to prevent the introduction, transmission, or spread of communicable diseases from foreign countries into the States or possessions, or from one State or possession into any other State or possession. For purposes of carrying out and enforcing such regulations, the Surgeon General may provide for such inspection, fumigation, disinfection, sanitation, pest extermination, destruction of animals or articles found to be so infected or contaminated as to be sources of dangerous infection to human beings, and other measures, as in his judgment may be necessary.

https://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/text/42/264

42 CFR 70.2

Whenever the Director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention determines that the measures taken by health authorities of any State or possession (including political subdivisions thereof) are insufficient to prevent the spread of any of the communicable diseases from such State or possession to any other State or possession, he/she may take such measures to prevent such spread of the diseases as he/she deems reasonably necessary, including inspection, fumigation, disinfection, sanitation, pest extermination, and destruction of animals or articles believed to be sources of infection.

https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/42/70.2

42 CFR 71.31(b)

The Director may require detention of a carrier until the completion of the measures outlined in this part that are necessary to prevent the introduction or spread of a communicable disease. The Director may issue a controlled free pratique to the carrier stipulating what measures are to be met, but such issuance does not prevent the periodic boarding of a carrier and the inspection of persons and records to verify that the conditions have been met for granting the pratique.

https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/42/71.31

42 CFR 71.32(b)

Whenever the Director has reason to believe that any arriving carrier or article or thing on board the carrier is or may be infected or contaminated with a communicable disease, he/she may require detention, disinfection, disinfestation, fumigation, or other related measures respecting the carrier or article or thing as he/she considers necessary to prevent the introduction, transmission, or spread of communicable diseases.

https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/42/71.32

Что такое расизм в школьном классе математики

Вы не знали? Так узнайте.

we see white supremacy culture in the mathematics classroom can show up when:

• The focus is on getting the “right” answer.
• Independent practice is valued over teamwork or collaboration.
• “Real-world math” is valued over math in the real world.
• Students are tracked (into courses/pathways and within the classroom).
• Participation structures reinforce dominant ways of being.
• Teachers enculturated in the USA teach mathematics the way they learned it.
• Expectations are not met.
• Addressing mistakes.
• Teachers are teachers and students are learners.
• Math is taught in a linear fashion and skills are taught sequentially, without consideration of prerequisite knowledge.
• Superficial curriculum changes are offered to address culturally relevant pedagogy and practice.
• State standards guide learning in the classroom.
• Procedural fluency is preferred over conceptual knowledge.
• “Good” math teaching is considered an antidote for mathematical inequity for Black, Latinx, and multilingual students.
• Rigor is expressed only in difficulty.
• “I do, we do, you do” is the format of the class.
• Students are required to “show their work.”
• Grading practices are focused on lack of knowledge.
• Language acquisition is equated with mathematical proficiency


https://equitablemath.org/wp-content/uploads/sites/2/2020/11/1_STRIDE1.pdf

никогда не понимал вполне диалектики

Wikipedia is written from a neutral point of view

We strive for articles in an impartial tone that document and explain major points of view, giving due weight for their prominence. We avoid advocacy, and we characterize information and issues rather than debate them. In some areas there may be just one well-recognized point of view; in others, we describe multiple points of view, presenting each accurately and in context rather than as "the truth" or "the best view".

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia:Five_pillars

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Public debate about climate change has been strongly affected by climate change denial and misinformation, which originated in the United States and has since spread to other countries, particularly Canada and Australia. The actors behind climate change denial form a well-funded and relatively coordinated coalition of fossil fuel companies, industry groups, conservative think tanks, and contrarian scientists. Like the tobacco industry before, the main strategy of these groups has been to manufacture doubt about scientific data and results. Many who deny, dismiss, or hold unwarranted doubt about the scientific consensus on anthropogenic climate change are labelled as "climate change skeptics", which several scientists have noted is a misnomer.

There are different variants of climate denial: some deny that warming takes place at all, some acknowledge warming but attribute it to natural influences, and some minimize the negative impacts of climate change. Manufacturing uncertainty about the science later developed into a manufacturing controversy: creating the belief that there is significant uncertainty about climate change within the scientific community in order to delay policy changes. Strategies to promote these ideas include criticism of scientific institutions, and questioning the motives of individual scientists. An echo chamber of climate-denying blogs and media has further fomented misunderstanding of climate change.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Climate_change