Давно знаю, что есть такой очень полезный источник - материалы брифингов китайского МИДа. Полезен он тем, что там с исключительной тщательностью выбирают слова и выражения. Для кого-то, может быть, это выглядит несколько занудно, когда там раз за разом повторяют одни и те же формулы, а веселой театральности никакой нет. На самом деле именно это и означает, что за формулами брифингов стоит согласованная политика верховной власти, а не отвлекающая болтовня второстепенных говорунов.
В частности, очень познавательно посмотреть, что говорили на этих брифингах про Венесуэлу. Все это можно разделить на два блока.
Один - полностью предсказуемый и самоочевидный - это осуждение односторонних экономических санкций, прежде всего американских. Тут все понятно, ничего другого китайцы сказать и не могли, никакой неожиданности нет и быть не могло.
Второй блок - это оценка происходящего в Венесуэле. И вот тут китайская линия очень показательна. Они с самого начала изо всех сил уходят от демонстрации поддержки какой-либо из сторон внутри-венесуэльского конфликта. При этом Китай, естественно, поддерживает формальные отношения именно с Мадуро, да оно и не могло бы быть иначе - ведь Мадуро сохраняет полный контроль над государственной машиной и никаких признаков ослабления этого контроля пока не наблюдается. Тем не менее, в ответ на прямые вопросы китайцы постоянно повторяют одну и ту же формулу и ни на шаг от нее не отступают - мол, наш представитель присутствовал на инаугурационной церемонии Мадуро 10 января, то есть за две недели до непосредственного начала нынешнего политического кризиса. Таким образом они уклоняются от того, чтобы прямо сказать: мол, да, мы и сегодня считаем законным президентом именно Мадуро, а не самозванца Гуайдо (ну, или наоборот :))
Еще одна формула, которую на этих брифингах повторяют - это призыв к "peaceful dialogue within the framework of the Venezuelan Constitution
". Как мне видится, здесь важны две вещи:
- а) аккуратно подчеркивается статусное равенство сторон диалога (в отличие, например, от формулы "диалог правительства и оппозиции),
- б) демонстративно дается отсылка к конституции, которая, как известно как раз и является камнем преткновения и служит легальной опорой прежде всего для Гуайдо, в то время как легальная опора Мадуро сводится в основном к решениям верховного суда и новой "конституционной ассамблеи", по своей природе вне-конституционной.
Чтобы не быть голословноым - вот полная подборка цитат про Венесуэлу из этих брифингов (за вычетом самоочевидных высказываний о недопустимости внешнего вмешательства и односторонних санкций):24 январяWe have been closely following the current situation in Venezuela and call upon all relevant parties to stay rational and cool-headed and seek a political solution to the issue of Venezuela through peaceful dialogue within the framework of the Venezuelan Constitution. China supports the efforts made by the Venezuelan government to uphold national sovereignty, independence and stability.
President Maduro started his new presidential term from this January 10. Many countries including China as well as international organizations had sent representatives to attend his inauguration ceremony. China hopes that all relevant parties in Venezuela can bear in mind the fundamental interests of their country and people, resolve political differences through dialogue and consultation on the premise of respecting constitutionalism, avoid violent conflicts and restore normal order.
Q: Does China still recognize Nicholas Maduro as the current President of Venezuela?
A: Like I said just now, many countries including China as well as international organizations had sent representatives to attend the inauguration ceremony of President Maduro on this January 10. China supports the efforts made by the Venezuelan government to uphold national sovereignty, independence and stability.https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/xwfw_665399/s2510_665401/2511_665403/t1632218.shtml25 январяThe Venezuela's affairs must be and can only be chosen and decided by the Venezuelan people. We call upon all relevant parties to respect the choice of the Venezuelan people and support them in seeking a political solution through peaceful dialogue within the framework of the Venezuelan Constitution.https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/xwfw_665399/s2510_665401/2511_66540328 январяChina has been closely following the current situation in Venezuela. We support the Venezuelan government's efforts to uphold national sovereignty, independence and stability. All countries should earnestly observe the purposes and principles of the UN Charter and oppose external intervention in Venezuela's own affairs as well as any attempts by one country to interfere in another's internal affairs. Venezuela's affairs must and can only be independently determined by its own people.
We hope all parties can make more efforts to promote stability and development in Venezuela, improve its people's wellbeing, and uphold the international law and basic norms governing international relations.https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/xwfw_665399/s2510_665401/2511_665403/t1633218.shtml29 январяQ: On Venezuela, has the Chinese side been in contact with Maduro or the opposition leader? Which of those two do you recognize as the President of Venezuela?
A: My colleague has answered this question last week. Special Envoy of President Xi Jinping attended the inauguration ceremony of President Maduro on January 10, if I recall it correctly.
Follow-up: China still sees Maduro as the President of the country?
A: I just told you that Special Envoy of President Xi Jinping attended the inauguration ceremony of President Maduro. I believed I have answered you question. What do you find difficult to understand?
Follow-up: No, not really. I understand what you are saying, but you have not directly answered the question of who currently you view as the President of the country?
A: I have made myself clear. Special Envoy of President Xi Jinping attended the inauguration ceremony of President Maduro. If China does not recognize him, why did we send a Special Envoy to attend his inauguration ceremony? I don't think this logic is beyond your understanding.
Follow-up: Have there been any changes since the inauguration of Maduro?
A: Do you think I would have answered you in that way if there were any changes?https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/xwfw_665399/s2510_665401/2511_665403/t1633680.shtml31 январяRegarding the situation in Venezuela, China has stated its position many times, so I am not going to elaborate on it today.
I would like to stress here that the Chinese side has for many times called on all parties to find a political solution to the Venezuelan issue at an early date through peaceful dialogues. This is also an outcome that all parties want to see. China stands ready to work with all parties towards this end
.https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/xwfw_665399/s2510_665401/2511_665403/t1634507.shtml1 февраляQ: I have two questions. First, is the Chinese government now in contact or has it had any contact in the past with Venezuela's opposition leader Juan Guaido or any of his associates? And the second question is, is China concerned that if Guaido takes power, his government will try to renegotiate or refuse to pay Venezuela's outstanding debt to China?
A: Regarding your first question, China has made clear its position on the situation in Venezuela. So instead of repeating it here, I'd like to stress that the Chinese side has been in close communication with all parties in various ways on the situation in Venezuela. We stand ready to work with all parties to promote peace talks and create favorable conditions for the proper settlement of this issue.
As for the debt issue you asked about, China-Venezuela relations are normal state-to-state relations. Our practical cooperation has been long-standing and is based on equality, mutual benefit, common development and commercial principles. It complies with laws and regulations and should be above any harm no matter how the situation may evolve. Upholding the principle of equality, mutual benefit, win-win cooperation and common development, China will continue to boost its exchanges and cooperation with Venezuela in various fields.
Q: You just said that China is maintaining close contact with all parties. Are we to understand from that you have been in touch with the opposition leader in Venezuela?
A: As I just said, China maintains close communication with all parties through various means on the Venezuelan situation.
Q: One more question on Venezuela. The opposition leader, self-proclaimed "interim president", said that changing recognition to his government away from Maduro would benefit Venezuela's creditors, including China. Do you have a comment on his remarks?
A: When answering an earlier question, I said that China-Venezuela cooperation is based on equality, mutual benefit, common development and commercial principles and abides by laws and regulations. No matter how the situation evolves, China-Venezuela cooperation should not be undermined.https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/xwfw_665399/s2510_665401/2511_665403/t1634957.shtml8 февраляChina believes that Venezuela's affairs should be resolved by the Venezuelan people under the framework of its Constitution and laws and through peaceful dialogue and political means. This is the only way towards enduring peace in the country. China supports the efforts by the international community to this end and hopes that all sides will continue to play a constructive role in the peaceful resolution of the Venezuela issue.https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/xwfw_665399/s2510_665401/2535_665405/t1636418.shtml11 февраляQ: <...> Second, Venezuelan opposition Juan Guaido has said that he is willing to engage Chinese officials in dialogue as soon as possible and will honor bilateral agreements. Has China already begun discussions with Guaido on Venezuela's debt repayment?
A: <...> As for the situation in Venezuela, we hope that the Venezuelan people could sort out their own matters and resolve the issue through peace dialogues and political means under the legal framework in accordance with their Constitution. Only in this way can Venezuela realize enduring stability and order in the real sense. China supports the efforts made by the international community to achieve this end and hopes that all parties could contribute constructively to the peaceful settlement of the Venezuelan issue. The relationship between China and Venezuela is a normal one between two states. Our two sides have been conducting practical cooperation for a long time following the principle of equality, mutual benefit, common development and commercial rules. Such cooperation complies with laws and regulations and has benefited the two countries and peoples, and therefore should stand beyond any harm no matter how the situation on the ground may change. China will continue to advance its exchanges and cooperation with Venezuela in various fields in accordance with the principle of equality, mutual benefit, win-win cooperation and common development.https://www.fmprc.gov.cn/mfa_eng/xwfw_665399/s2510_665401/2511_665403/t1637013.shtml