June 12th, 2008

Люксембургский (де факто) плебисцит в октябре 41-го

October 10, 1941: Expecting their propaganda campaign to be successful, the occupation authorities organised a census, which included seemingly innocuous questions about nationality, mother tongue and ethnicity. Resistance organisations were quick to recognise this as a thinly disguised attempt to incorporate Luxembourg into the Reich and mounted a massive underground awareness-raising campaign ("Dräimol Lëtzebuergesch", eng: "Three times Luxembourgish"), turning the census into a referendum. The result was that 97% declared their Luxembourgish identity, often writing "Mir wëlle bleiwen wat mir sin" ("We wish to remain what we are") on the census forms. When the regime became aware of the fiasco, the census was immediately stopped. For the suppressed population, this was an enormous moral victory.


О национал-коммунистах сталинского времени

Чтобы не забыть, из старых комментов - старая цитата:
Honor was one motive that seemed singularly lacking as inspiration for Poland's new rulers, men who struck Churchill as "the greatest villains imaginable". In their inscrupulous drive for power, they were ever ready to use trickery, flattery, and deceit. Yet they had redeeming virtues that were particularly timely in their country's dire predicament: a devotion to its national interest as they understood it and a readiness to uphold it even to Stalin. Rather than being his eager stooges, they were harbingers of a Poland that in the end would reemerge from its travails, not an independent nation to be sure but still Moscow's most difficult, as well as most respected, satellite.


In the ruins of Warsaw, the romantic Policsh propensity for gallant but hopeless resistance succumbed along with the elite of old Poland, and a new pragmatism was born. The dual experience of Soviet cynicism and Nazi barbarity proved a sobering lesson for the nation in general and its new ruling elite in particular. Nowhere in Soviet eastern Europe would be the veneer of the Communists' devotion to their official creed be as thin as in Poland, and nowhere would be abuses of Stalinism be more effectively mitigated by leniency. The frightful memories that the Communists shared with the rank and file of their compatriots sealed an unwritten compact between the rulers and the ruled: to make life livable again, certail minimum standards of civility had to be maintained.

Vojtech Mastny "Russia's Road to the Cold War. Diplomacy, Warfare, and the Politics of Communism, 1941-1945" Columbia University Press. 1979