October 18th, 2001

Определение терроризма

Всплыл разговор об определении терроризма. Есть достаточно детальный обзор этой проблемы, статья Ганора "Defining terrorism", 1998-го года.
Ее адрес - http://www.ict.org.il/articles/articledet.cfm?articleid=49

В частности, там говорится:

In their book Political Terrorism, Schmidt and Youngman cited 109 different definitions of terrorism, which they obtained in a survey of leading academics in the field.


The definition proposed here states that terrorism is the intentional use of, or threat to use violence against civilians or against civilian targets, in order to attain political aims. This definition is based on three important elements:

1. The essence of the activity - the use of, or threat to use, violence. According to this definition, an activity that does not involve violence or a threat of violence will not be defined as terrorism (including non-violent protest - strikes, peaceful demonstrations, tax revolts, etc.).

2. The aim of the activity is always political - namely, the goal is to attain political objectives; changing the regime, changing the people in power, changing social or economic policies, etc. In the absence of a political aim, the activity in quest will not be defined as terrorism. A violent activity against civilians that has no political aim is, at most, an act of criminal delinquency, a felony, or simply an act of insanity unrelated to terrorism. Some scholars tend to add ideological or religious aims to the list of political aims. The advantage of this definition, however, is that it is as short and exhaustive as possible. The concept of "political aim" is sufficiently broad to include these goals as well. The motivation - whether ideological, religious, or something else—behind the political objective is irrelevant for the purpose of defining terrorism.

3.The targets of terrorism are civilians. Terrorism is thus distinguished from other types of political violence (guerrilla warfare, civil insurrection, etc.). Terrorism exploits the relative vulnerability of the civilian "underbelly" - the tremendous anxiety, and the intense media reaction evoked by attacks against civilian targets. The proposed definition emphasizes that terrorism is not the result of an accidental injury inflicted on a civilian or a group of civilians who stumbled into an area of violent political activity, but stresses that this is an act purposely directed against civilians. Hence, the term "terrorism" should not be ascribed to collateral damage to civilians used as human shields or to cover military activity or installations, if such damage is incurred in an attack originally aimed against a military target. In this case, the responsibility for civilian casualties is incumbent upon whoever used them as shields.

Дается следующая диаграмма:

Если развить эту логику (на мой взгляд, правильную), то надо обратить внимание, что "госслужащие" делятся на две категории - те, кто причастны к совершению насильственных (военных и полицейских) действий, и все остальные. Действительно, ведь генералы непосредственно не воюют и не убивают, они только отдают приказы, но это не мешает им попадать в категорию "military". Соответственно, нападения на министров, премьеров, президентов и т.д. - это акт партизанской борьбы (guerilla), а нападения на врачей и учителей - терроризм.

Заодно - еще одна цитата оттуда же:

Without a definition of terrorism, it is impossible to formulate or enforce international agreements against terrorism. A conspicuous example of the need to define terrorism concerns the extradition of terrorists. Although many countries have signed bilateral and multilateral agreements concerning a variety of crimes, extradition for political offenses is often explicitly excluded, and the background of terrorism is always political. This loophole allows many countries to shirk their obligation to extradite individuals wanted for terrorist activities. It isn't only countries like Italy and France that have refrained from extraditing terrorists, adducing political motives. In the U.S. too, in June 1988, a Brooklyn judge rejected the plea of a federal prosecutor requesting the extradition of Abed El Atta (an American citizen suspected of participating in an attack against a bus in the West Bank in April 1986, in which four people were killed). The judge stated that this attack was a "political act," part of the uprising in the occupied territories, and instrumental in the attainment of the PLO's "political aims." "In the West Bank, today's rebels could be tomorrow's rulers." According to the judge, this is a "political charge," excluded from the category of crimes included in the extradition treaty between Israel and the United States.

(сейчас эта статья доступна здесь - https://www.ict.org.il/Article/1123/Defining-Terrorism-Is-One-Mans-Terrorist-Another-Mans-Freedom-Fighter)