by Arthur Carl Piepkorn
Saint Louis: Concordia Seminary, 1958
Речь идет о следующих элементах гардероба:
The vestments that come into consideration are:
(1) The amice, a collar-like linen vestment, which by the end of the Middle Ages measured about two feet by three and which was designed to serve both as a collar and as a kind of hood. The collar effect was heightened by the addition of an apparel (Latin, parura), a piece of damask or silk three or four inches wide and up to 26 inches long.
(2) The alb, a white ankle-length linen tunic with narrow sleeves and a full skirt. Rectangular apparels were generally attached, usually at the wrists and at the front and back of the skirt, although other kinds of appareling were not uncommon. From the alb there developed —
(3) The surplice, also of white linen, and also, when properly designed, as long as the alb. It differed from the alb in design because it was made to go over (super) furclothing (pelliceae, from pellis)—hence the Latin name, superpelliceum. The sleeves were both much longer and much fuller than those of the alb, and the head opening was usually round. But the surplice also assumed other forms. Sometimes the sleeves were made quite narrow, so that it differed from an alb only in being ungirded. It might be sleeveless, like an English server’s rochet, or its full sleeves might be slit from shoulder to wrist and hang down at the sides, like a “winged rochet.” Surplices were occasionally appareled. In ordinary reference alb and surplice were not carefully differentiated from each other. After the Reformation the assimilation rapidly became complete in the Church of Augsburg Confession and the names became quite interchangeable.
(4) The cincture, a girdle nine to twelve feet in length, usually of white hemp rope, to hold the folds of the alb in place.
(5) The maniple, originally a handkerchief worn by political dignitaries. It passed into early Christian worship as a piece of white linen attached to the priest's left forearm to wipe his hands and the Communion vessels. By the sixteenth century it had become a purely ceremonial vestment, made of damask or silk, up to four inches wide and anywhere from two to four feet long, worn over the left arm by bishops, priests, deacons, and subdeacons.
(6) The stole, also a handkerchief originally, which by the sixteenth century had become a badge of the three higher orders of clergy—bishops, priests, and deacons—each of whom wore it in a distinctive way in conjunction with the other Mass vestments. By the time of the Reformation it was regularly made of damask or silk, about three inches wide and about nine feet long. Both the stole and the maniple were embroidered and often fringed.
(7) The chasuble, worn by bishops and priests at the celebration of the Holy Eucharist. Originally it was a closed-front, tent-like garment—the phailones of Timothy 4:13—which was worn over the tunic. By the sixteenth century the sides had been cut away, and it had acquired a kind of shield shape front and rear; it was made of silk or damask and often richly embroidered.
(8) The dalmatic and—
(9) The tunicle are counterparts of the celebrant’s chasuble at the Holy Eucharist; the deacon (gospeler) wore the dalmatic, while the subdeacon (epistoler), collets (acolytes in the strict sense of the word), and other minor clerics wore the tunicle. The bishop wore both dalmatic and tunicle under his chasuble. The dalmatic and the tunicle are often difficult to distinguish from each other and they are frequently lumped together under the term dalmatic; actually the dalmatic is slightly more elaborate. By the sixteenth century dalmatics and tunicles were made of the same materials as chasubles and had the shape of a very loose fitting, moderately long, short-sleeved, closed-front coat put on over the wearer’s head.
(10) The cope, a cape which had developed out of the primitive chasuble. By the time of the Reformation it had become a ceremonial garment of damask or silk, a great semi-circle in shape, often very richly embroidered and ornamented, worn by clergymen and laymen alike for solemn non-Eucharistic offices. The hood with which the cope was often equipped in earlier centuries had by the sixteenth become in many cases a richly
embroidered little shield hanging down the wearer’s back.
(11) The mitre, the ceremonial cap worn by a bishop or a person of assimilated episcopal rank.
(12) The pallium, a narrow circle of lamb’s wool, laid over the shoulders, with an equally wide strip of lamb’s wool hanging down (sometimes as far as the knees) front and rear. It was the Papally bestowed acknowledgement of the archiepiscopal status of the wearer.
Cassock, gown, biretta, scarf, ruff, (Beffchen), and black cape were not service vestments, but, as far as they existed in medieval times, they were part of the domestic and street garb of the clergy. Thus they will not be considered in the present survey.