Boris Lvin (bbb) wrote,
Boris Lvin
bbb

Кстати - о регулировании такси в Америке

Очень познавательное место - Taxi Research на сайте Schaller Consulting (http://www.schallerconsult.com/taxi/index.html).



Например, формальные определения:

Taxicabs are defined in City law as vehicles seating fewer than nine passengers (in addition to the driver) and permitted to pick up street hails. They are the only vehicles allowed by law to pick up street hails or pick up at taxi or airport stands. Uniquely to New York, regulations prohibit taxicabs from pre-arranging service through two-way radios. Taxicabs charge a metered fare. All taxis are painted yellow. Each cab has a rooflight indicating available for hire, hired, or off duty. The number of taxicabs, currently 12,187, is set by local law and rarely changed. Taxicab vehicle licenses ("medallions" in common parlance) are transferable and currently fetch well over $200,000 in the market.
<...>
black cars are defined as FHVs that operated from bases organized as either a franchise or cooperative, and where at least 90% of customers pay by a method other than cash.
<...>
"Luxury limousines" are defined in TLC rules as FHVs where passengers are charged on the basis of garage to garage service, oayment is by other than direct cash payment by the customer, and at least $500,000/$1,000,000 insurance is carried.
http://www.schallerconsult.com/taxi/newfb/defin.htm

История нью-йоркских такси:

New York City's gasoline-powered taxi industry originated in 1907 when Harry Allen fielded 65 French-imported automobiles. Providing faster service, and using mechanical meters to more accurately compute the fare, the new service quickly replaced horse-drawn hansom cabs.

The taxi industry grew quickly from those initial 65 to 15,000 vehicles in 1923, led by several large fleets such as Checker (3,750 taxis), Yellow (3,000 taxis) and the National Transportation Company (1,500 cabs).

Ready entry to this all-cash business led to further expansion in the early years of the Great Depression, reaching a peak of 21,000 taxis in the 1931.

But beset with declining demand for service in the Depression, and then by wartime restrictions, the industry shrank steadily in the 15 years after 1931.

To address problems of oversupply the City Board of Aldermen in 1937 Haas Act, which capped the industry at the number of licenses then outstanding, 13,595.

Initially, the Haas Act had no impact on the industry's size. Taxi companies continued to let permits lapse until, by the late 1940s, there were 11,787 active licenses.

То есть, переведя на человеческий язык, в момент экономического спада, когда пассажиров стало меньше, а желающих их возить - больше, существующие на тот момент компании пролоббировали монополию, фактический запрет на вход в бизнес. Интересно посмотреть, как это получилось. Может быть, они начали лоббировать раньше, но только к 37-му году добились своего? Или засуетились в ожидании подъема? А может быть, в это время и возникла конкуренция со стороны каких-то неформалов, вроде наших "частников"? Если верно последнее - то это классическая ситуация лоббирования в пользу монополии для себя под лозунгом "качества услуг".

После войны новых лицензий не выдают, но возникают альтернативы, не подпадающие под городское регулирование:

After World War II, the cap on licenses became an impediment to the taxi industry's ability to meet New York's growing transportation needs. With the post-war boom, cab service became scarce in neighborhoods across the city. To fill the gap, neighborhood car services, or liveries, began to operate in New York City's lower-income neighborhoods. Though not regulated by the City government, these operations were legal provided they operated only by prearrangement.

As taxicabs increasingly focused their operations on Manhattan, car services grew rapidly in Brooklyn, the Bronx, Queens, Staten Island and parts of Manhattan. The number of car service vehicles increased from 2,500 in 1964 to 13,700 in 1973 and 21,300 in 1983.

In 1973, the number of taxis and liveries (21,000) matched the previous high tide of the industry--21,000 taxicabs in 1931, 40 years earlier.

Крайне характерно, что к 73-му году общее число машин, обслуживающих рынок Нью-Йорка, вернулось на уровень 31-го года - но только примерно половина из них формально была лицензированными такси. То есть монополистам удалось удержать число лицензий на уровне в два раза меньшим, чем фактическое число (нелицензированных) такси за сорок лет до того, а остаток пришелся на нелицензированные машины с легально ограниченными возможностями обслуживания. Монополия привела к искусственному сегментированию и ограничению рынка

The number of car service vehicles has grown explosively since 1992, increasing by over 50% between 1992 and 2000.

50 years after the Haas Act, the first new taxi licenses were issued, by auction to the highest bidders, in 1996 and 1997.

Нет, это надо повторить и подчеркнуть. КОЛИЧЕСТВО ЛЕГАЛЬНЫХ ЛИЦЕНЗИЙ БЫЛО ЗАМОРОЖЕНО НА ПЯТЬДЕСЯТ ЛЕТ. Пятьдесят лет счастливцы-моноплисты 37-го года получали монопольную ренту.

И, как итог - at the turn of the century, the number of livery cars was four times greater than the number of taxicabs.

http://www.schallerconsult.com/taxi/newfb/size.htm

При этом сами авторы этого сайта, похоже, тесно связаны с городскими властями. Например, они фактически оправдывают и защищают эту безумную "систему медальонов" (http://www.schallerconsult.com/taxi/taxi2.htm).
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