Boris Lvin (bbb) wrote,
Boris Lvin
bbb

Религия и школа

В госдепартаменте США существует такая бесполезная контора как Бюро по вопросам демократии, религиозных свобод и прав трудящихся (Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, http://www.state.gov/g/drl)

Однако почти любое бесполезное занятие может иметь побочные полезные результаты. В частности, одним из результатов деятельности бюро являются ежегодные обзоры государственной политики в области религии по всем странам (http://www.state.gov/g/drl/irf/rpt). Последний выложенный доклад - за 2005 год (http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2005). Оттуда можно узнать много интересного и нетривиального, в том числе и о том, как в разных странах решается вопрос о преподавании религии в школе. Может быть, существуют другие обзоры аналогичного охвата, но мне они не известны.

Например, вот что сообщается о Дании:
All schools, including religious schools, receive government financial support. While the Evangelical Lutheran faith is taught in the public schools, a student may withdraw from religious classes with parental consent. Section 76 of the Constitution protects the rights of parents to home school or educate their children in private schools.

http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2005/51549.htm
А вот как обстоит дело в Норвегии:
A 1995 law introduced a course for grades 1-10 (ages 6-16) that covers world religions and philosophy and promotes tolerance and respect for all religious beliefs; however, based on the country's history and the importance of Christianity to society, the course devotes more time to Christianity. All children must attend this mandatory class, and there are no exceptions for children of other faiths; on special grounds, students may be exempted from participating in or performing specific religious acts such as church services or prayer, but they may not forgo instruction in the subject. Organizations for atheists as well as Muslim communities have contested the legality of forced religious teaching. These organizations have contested the teaching of the subject in the courts, claiming that it is a breach of freedom of religion and parents' rights to provide religious instruction to their children. In 2002, the Humanist Association appealed the case to the European Court of Human Rights in Strasbourg. In November, 2004, the European Court of Human Rights decided that the practice of a mandatory religious class broke with human rights principles. In response, the Government made necessary changes to meet the European Court of Human Rights remarks, such as changing legislation to emphasize that the course is not religious preaching. The Government intends to work out a new curriculum for the course in which the rules for exemption will be made easier. These changes will be implemented in the 2005-6 school year.

http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2005/51572.htm
А вот так - в Греции:
The law prohibits the functioning of private schools in buildings owned by non-Orthodox religious foundations; however, this law is not enforced in practice.

Orthodox religious instruction in public, primary, and secondary schools is mandatory for all Orthodox students. Non-Orthodox students are exempt from this requirement, however schools offer no alternative supervision for the children during the period of religious instruction; hence these children sometimes attend Orthodox religious instruction by default. Members of the Muslim community in Athens are lobbying for Islamic religious instruction for their children.


http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2005/51555.htm
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